KAFAIT U. MALIK, Ph.D., M.S., D.Sc.

Professor, Department of Pharmacology

Office: 218H TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH BUILDING
71 SOUTH MANASSAS
MEMPHIS TN 381630000
Tel: (901) 448-6075
kmalik@uthsc.edu

Education

  • M.S., University of Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, Pharmacology
  • Ph.D., University of Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, Pharmacology
  • University of Zagreb, Yugoslavia, Pharm. Technology
  • B.S., University of Punjab, Pakistan, Pharmacy

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Research description

Eicosanoid Pharmacology, Vascular Biology, Vascular effects of eicosanoids, angiotensins, and catecholamines. Signal transduction pathways in blood vessles, vascular response to injury , Contribution of vasoactive agents in hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis.

Research interest/specialty

Neuro-hormonal control of Cardiovascular and Renal System- Hypertension, aneurysms, restenosis and athero\0clerosis

Research description

Eicosanoid Pharmacology, Vascular Biology, Vascular effects of eicosanoids, angiotensins, and catecholamines. Signal transduction pathways in blood vessles, vascular response to injury , Contribution of vasoactive agents in hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis.

Publications

  1. Pavicevic, Z, Leslie, CC, Malik, KU. cPLA2 phosphorylation at serine-515 and serine-505 is required for arachidonic acid release in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Lipid Res, 49 (4), 724-37, 2008.
  2. Tunctan, B, Korkmaz, B, Buharalioglu, CK, Firat, SS, Anjaiah, S, Falck, J, Roman, RJ, Malik, KU. A 20-HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACID AGONIST, N-[20-HYDROXYEICOSA-5(Z),14(Z)-DIENOYL]GLYCINE, OPPOSES THE FALL IN BLOOD PRESSURE AND VASCULAR REACTIVITY IN ENDOTOXIN-TREATED RATS. Shock, 2008.
  3. Lavrentyev, EN, Estes, AM, Malik, KU. Mechanism of high glucose induced angiotensin II production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res, 101 (5), 455-64, 2007.
  4. Yaghini, FA, Li, F, Malik, KU. Expression and mechanism of spleen tyrosine kinase activation by angiotensin II and its implication in protein synthesis in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem, 282 (23), 16878-90, 2007.
  5. Parmentier, JH, Zhang, C, Estes, A, Schaefer, S, Malik, KU. Essential role of PKC-zeta in normal and angiotensin II-accelerated neointimal growth after vascular injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 291 (4), H1602-13, 2006.
  6. Parmentier, JH, Pavicevic, Z, Malik, KU. ANG II stimulates phospholipase D through PKCzeta activation in VSMC: implications in adhesion, spreading, and hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 290 (1), H46-54, 2006.
  7. Li, F, Zhang, C, Schaefer, S, Estes, A, Malik, KU. ANG II-induced neointimal growth is mediated via cPLA2- and PLD2-activated Akt in balloon-injured rat carotid artery. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 289 (6), H2592-601, 2005.
  8. Parmentier, JH, Lavrentyev, EN, Falck, JR, Capdevila, JH, Malik, KU. Evaluation of cytochrome P450 4 family as mediator of phospholipase D activation in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Life Sci, 77 (9), 1015-29, 2005.
  9. Yaghini, FA, Zhang, C, Parmentier, JH, Estes, AM, Jafari, N, Schaefer, SA, Malik, KU. Contribution of arachidonic acid metabolites derived via cytochrome P4504A to angiotensin II-induced neointimal growth. Hypertension, 45 (6), 1182-7, 2005.
  10. Fatima, S, Yaghini, FA, Pavicevic, Z, Kalyankrishna, S, Jafari, N, Luong, E, Estes, A, Malik, KU. Intact actin filaments are required for cytosolic phospholipase A2 translocation but not for its activation by norepinephrine in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 313 (3), 1017-26, 2005.
  11. Li, F, Malik, KU. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation is mediated by metabolites of arachidonic acid generated by CaMKII-stimulated Ca2(+)-dependent phospholipase A2. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 288 (5), H2306-16, 2005.
  12. Li, F, Malik, KU. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation through the epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by phospholipid metabolites derived by activation of phospholipase D. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 312 (3), 1043-54, 2005.
  13. Saeed, AE, Parmentier, JH, Malik, KU. Activation of alpha1A-adrenergic receptor promotes differentiation of rat-1 fibroblasts to a smooth muscle-like phenotype. BMC Cell Biol, 5 (1), 47, 2004.
  14. Parmentier, JH, Gandhi, GK, Wiggins, MT, Saeed, AE, Bourgoin, SG, Malik, KU. Protein kinase Czeta regulates phospholipase D activity in rat-1 fibroblasts expressing the alpha1A adrenergic receptor. BMC Cell Biol, 5, 4, 2004.
  15. Parmentier, JH, Smelcer, P, Pavicevic, Z, Basic, E, Idrizovic, A, Estes, A, Malik, KU. PKC-zeta mediates norepinephrine-induced phospholipase D activation and cell proliferation in VSMC. Hypertension, 41 (3 Pt 2), 794-800, 2003.
  16. Kalyankrishna, S, Malik, KU. Norepinephrine-induced stimulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is mediated by arachidonic acid metabolites generated by activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 304 (2), 761-72, 2003.
  17. Fatima, S, Yaghini, FA, Ahmed, A, Khandekar, Z, Malik, KU. CaM kinase IIalpha mediates norepinephrine-induced translocation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 to the nuclear envelope. J Cell Sci, 116 (Pt 2), 353-65, 2003.
  18. Parmentier, JH, Ahmed, A, Ruan, Y, Gandhi, GK, Saeed, AE, Malik, KU. Calcium and protein kinase C (PKC)-related kinase mediate alpha 1A-adrenergic receptor-stimulated activation of phospholipase D in rat-1 cells, independent of PKC. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 303 (3), 1206-15, 2002.
  19. Kalyankrishna, S, Parmentier, JH, Malik, KU. Arachidonic acid-derived oxidation products initiate apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat, 70 (1-2), 13-29, 2002.
  20. Muthalif, MM, Karzoun, NA, Benter, IF, Gaber, L, Ljuca, F, Uddin, MR, Khandekar, Z, Estes, A, Malik, KU. Functional significance of activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in angiotensin II--induced vascular hyperplasia and hypertension. Hypertension, 39 (2 Pt 2), 704-9, 2002.
  21. Muthalif, MM, Hefner, Y, Canaan, S, Harper, J, Zhou, H, Parmentier, JH, Aebersold, R, Gelb, MH, Malik, KU. Functional interaction of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and cytosolic phospholipase A(2). J Biol Chem, 276 (43), 39653-60, 2001.
  22. Muthalif, MM, Ljuca, F, Roaten, JB, Pentapaty, N, Uddin, MR, Malik, KU. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and cytosolic phospholipase A2 contribute to mitogenic signaling in myeloblastic leukemia U-937 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 298 (1), 272-8, 2001.
  23. Fatima, S, Khandekar, Z, Parmentier, JH, Malik, KU. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation by the p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 298 (1), 331-8, 2001.
  24. Muthalif, MM, Uddin, MR, Fatima, S, Parmentier, JH, Khandekar, Z, Malik, KU. Small GTP binding protein Ras contributes to norepinephrine-induced mitogenesis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat, 65 (1), 33-43, 2001.
  25. Muthalif, MM, Uddin, MR, Fatima, S, Parmentier, J, Khandekar, Z, Malik, KU. Small GTP binding protein Ras contributes to norepinephrine-induced mitogenesis of vascular smooth muscle cells(1). Prostaglandins, 65 (1), 33-43, 2001.
  26. Parmentier, JH, Muthalif, MM, Saeed, AE, Malik, KU. Phospholipase D activation by norepinephrine is mediated by 12(s)-, 15(s)-, and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids generated by stimulation of cytosolic phospholipase a2. tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase d2 in response to norepinephrine. J Biol Chem, 276 (19), 15704-11, 2001.
  27. Liliom, K, Sun, G, Bünemann, M, Virág, T, Nusser, N, Baker, DL, Wang, DA, Fabian, MJ, Brandts, B, Bender, K, Eickel, A, Malik, KU, Miller, DD, Desiderio, DM, Tigyi, G, Pott, L. Sphingosylphosphocholine is a naturally occurring lipid mediator in blood plasma: a possible role in regulating cardiac function via sphingolipid receptors. Biochem J, 355 (Pt 1), 189-97, 2001.
  28. Parmentier, JH, Muthalif, MM, Nishimoto, AT, Malik, KU. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid mediates angiotensin ii-induced phospholipase d activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Hypertension, 37 (2 Part 2), 623-9, 2001.
  29. Lew, DB, Dempsey, BK, Zhao, Y, Muthalif, M, Fatima, S, Malik, KU. beta-hexosaminidase-induced activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase is dependent on p21Ras and protein kinase C and mediates bovine airway smooth-muscle proliferation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 21 (1), 111-8, 1999.
  30. Muthalif, MM, Benter, IF, Karzoun, N, Fatima, S, Harper, J, Uddin, MR, Malik, KU. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid mediates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95 (21), 12701-6, 1998.
  31. Ruan, Y, Kan, H, Parmentier, JH, Fatima, S, Allen, LF, Malik, KU. Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor stimulation with phenylephrine promotes arachidonic acid release by activation of phospholipase D in rat-1 fibroblasts: inhibition by protein kinase A. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 284 (2), 576-85, 1998.
  32. Uddin, MR, Muthalif, MM, Karzoun, NA, Benter, IF, Malik, KU. Cytochrome P-450 metabolites mediate norepinephrine-induced mitogenic signaling. Hypertension, 31 (1 Pt 2), 242-7, 1998.
  33. Muthalif, MM, Benter, IF, Uddin, MR, Harper, JL, Malik, KU. Signal transduction mechanisms involved in angiotensin-(1-7)-stimulated arachidonic acid release and prostanoid synthesis in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 284 (1), 388-98, 1998.
  34. Kan, H, Ruan, Y, Malik, KU. Signal transduction mechanism(s) involved in prostacyclin production elicited by acetylcholine in coronary endothelial cells of rabbit heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 282 (1), 113-22, 1997.
  35. Ruan, Y, Kan, H, Malik, KU. Beta adrenergic receptor stimulated prostacyclin synthesis in rabbit coronary endothelial cells is mediated by selective activation of phospholipase D: inhibition by adenosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 281 (3), 1038-46, 1997.
  36. Lew, DB, Brown, ER, Dempsey, BK, Wright, HM, Malik, KU. Contribution of PKC to beta-hexosaminidase-induced airway smooth muscle proliferation. Am J Physiol, 272 (4 Pt 1), L639-43, 1997.
  37. Sehic, E, Ruan, Y, Malik, KU. Mechanism of resistance to alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists of renal nerve stimulation-induced vasoconstriction at low frequencies. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 29 (1), 97-108, 1997.
  38. Kan, H, Ruan, Y, Malik, KU. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase and translocation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 to the nuclear envelope in acetylcholine-induced prostacyclin synthesis in rabbit coronary endothelial cells. Mol Pharmacol, 50 (5), 1139-47, 1996.
  39. Tyagi, MG, Kan, H, Ruan, Y, Malik, KU. Studies on the characterization of the subtype(s) of muscarinic receptor involved in prostacyclin synthesis in rabbit cardiomyocytes. J Recept Signal Transduct Res, 16 (5-6), 273-96, 1996.
  40. Ruan, Y, Kan, H, Cano, C, Malik, KU. Modulation of beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated lipolysis in the heart by prostaglandins. Am J Physiol, 271 (3 Pt 1), E556-62, 1996.
  41. Wright, HM, Malik, KU. Prostacyclin formation elicited by endothelin-1 in rat aorta is mediated via phospholipase D activation and not phospholipase C or A2. Circ Res, 79 (2), 271-6, 1996.
  42. Ruan, Y, Kan, H, Malik, KU. Modulation by cyclic AMP of beta adrenergic receptor-stimulated prostacyclin synthesis in rabbit ventricular myocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 278 (2), 482-9, 1996.
  43. Wright, HM, Malik, KU. Prostacyclin synthesis elicited by endothelin-1 in rat aorta is mediated by an ETA receptor via influx of calcium and is independent of protein kinase C. Hypertension, 26 (6 Pt 2), 1035-40, 1995.
  44. Cano, C, Slavik, KJ, Malik, KU. Loss of adenosine-induced negative inotropic effect in hyperexcited rabbit hearts: relationship to PKC. Am J Physiol, 268 (3 Pt 2), H1037-44, 1995.
  45. Sehic, E, Ruan, Y, Malik, KU. Attenuation by alpha,beta-methylenadenosine-5'-triphosphate of periarterial nerve stimulation-induced renal vasoconstriction is not due to desensitization of purinergic receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 271 (2), 983-92, 1994.
  46. Oellerich, WF, Schwartz, DD, Malik, KU. Neuropeptide Y inhibits adrenergic transmitter release in cultured rat superior cervical ganglion cells by restricting the availability of calcium through a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism. Neuroscience, 60 (2), 495-502, 1994.
  47. Oellerich, WF, Malik, KU. Neuropeptide Y modulates the vascular response to periarterial nerve stimulation primarily by a postjunctional action in the isolated perfused rat kidney. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 266 (3), 1321-9, 1993.
  48. Schwartz, DD, Williams, JL, Malik, KU. Contribution of calcium to isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the isolated perfused rabbit heart. Am J Physiol, 265 (3 Pt 1), E439-45, 1993.
  49. Nebigil, C, Malik, KU. Alpha adrenergic receptor subtypes involved in prostaglandin synthesis are coupled to Ca++ channels through a pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 266 (2), 1113-24, 1993.
  50. Matsell, DG, Gaber, LW, Sehic, E, Malik, KU. Interleukin 1 and interleukin 6 inhibition of mesangial cell proliferation: role of PGE2. J Lipid Mediat, 6 (1-3), 343-52, 1993.
  51. Schwartz, DD, Malik, KU. Cyclic AMP modulates but does not mediate the inhibition of [3H]norepinephrine release by activation of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in cultured rat ganglion cells. Neuroscience, 52 (1), 107-13, 1993.
  52. Nebigil, C, Malik, KU. Comparison of signal transduction mechanisms of alpha-2C and alpha-1A adrenergic receptor-stimulated prostaglandin synthesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 263 (3), 987-96, 1992.
  53. Lew, DB, Nebigil, C, Malik, KU. Dual regulation by cAMP of beta-hexosaminidase-induced mitogenesis in bovine tracheal myocytes. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 7 (6), 614-9, 1992.
  54. Lew, DB, Nadel, GL, Malik, KU. Prostaglandin E2 synthesis elicited by adrenergic stimuli in guinea pig trachea is mediated primarily via activation of beta 2 adrenergic receptors. Prostaglandins, 44 (5), 399-412, 1992.
  55. Cano, C, Qureshi, Z, Carter, S, Malik, KU. Contribution of adenosine to isoproterenol-stimulated prostacyclin production in rabbit heart. Am J Physiol, 263 (1 Pt 2), H218-25, 1992.
  56. Schwartz, DD, Malik, KU. Characterization of prejunctional alpha-2 adrenergic receptors involved in modulation of adrenergic transmitter release in the isolated perfused rat kidney. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 261 (3), 1050-5, 1992.
  57. Cano, C, Malik, KU. Adenosine receptor-mediated alterations in prostacyclin production and cardiac function in the isolated rabbit heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 261 (2), 660-8, 1992.
  58. Nebigil, C, Malik, KU. Prostaglandin synthesis elicited by adrenergic stimuli is mediated via alpha-2C and alpha-1A adrenergic receptors in cultured smooth muscle cells of rabbit aorta. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 260 (2), 849-58, 1992.
  59. Jaiswal, N, Lambrecht, G, Mutschler, E, Tacke, R, Malik, KU. Pharmacological characterization of the vascular muscarinic receptors mediating relaxation and contraction in rabbit aorta. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 258 (3), 842-50, 1991.
  60. Schwartz, DD, Malik, KU. Mechanism of neurotransmitter release elicited by the preferential alpha 1-adrenergic receptor agonist phenylephrine in superfused superior cervical ganglion cells in culture. J Neurochem, 57 (3), 831-8, 1991.
  61. Adeagbo, AS, Malik, KU. Contribution of K+ channels to arachidonic acid-induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rat isolated perfused mesenteric arteries. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 258 (2), 452-8, 1991.
  62. Jaiswal, N, Jaiswal, RK, Malik, KU. Muscarinic receptor-mediated prostacyclin and cGMP synthesis in cultured vascular cells. Mol Pharmacol, 40 (1), 101-6, 1991.
  63. Palazzo, AJ, Malik, KU, Weis, MT. Vasopressin stimulates the mobilization and metabolism of triacylglycerol in perfused rabbit hearts. Am J Physiol, 260 (2 Pt 2), H604-12, 1991.
  64. Jaiswal, N, Malik, KU. Methoctramine, a cardioselective antagonist: muscarinic receptor mediating prostaglandin synthesis in isolated rabbit heart. Eur J Pharmacol, 192 (1), 63-70, 1991.
  65. Williams, JL, Malik, KU. Forskolin stimulates prostaglandin synthesis in rabbit heart by a mechanism that requires calcium and is independent of cyclic AMP. Circ Res, 67 (5), 1247-56, 1990.
  66. Weis, MT, Palazzo, AJ, Williams, JL, Malik, KU. Uptake, incorporation and metabolism of (3H)triolein in the isolated perfused rabbit heart. Lipids, 25 (8), 497-503, 1990.
  67. Nebigil, C, Malik, KU. Prostaglandin synthesis elicited by adrenergic stimuli in rabbit aorta is mediated via alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 254 (2), 633-40, 1990.
  68. Adeagbo, AS, Malik, KU. Endothelium-dependent and BRL 34915-induced vasodilatation in rat isolated perfused mesenteric arteries: role of G-proteins, K+ and calcium channels. Br J Pharmacol, 100 (3), 427-34, 1990.
  69. Sehic, E, Malik, KU. Effect of protein kinase C inhibitors on the actions of phorbol esters on vascular tone and adrenergic transmission in the isolated rat kidney. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 253 (2), 497-507, 1990.
  70. Jaiswal, N, Malik, KU. Prostacyclin synthesis elicited by cholinergic agonists is linked to activation of M2 alpha and M2 beta muscarinic receptors in the rabbit aorta. Prostaglandins, 39 (3), 267-80, 1990.
  71. Adeagbo, AS, Malik, KU. Mechanism of vascular actions of prostacyclin in the rat isolated perfused mesenteric arteries. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 252 (1), 26-34, 1990.
  72. Sehic, E, Malik, KU. Influence of protein kinase C activators on vascular tone and adrenergic neuroeffector events in the isolated rat kidney. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 251 (2), 634-9, 1989.
  73. Williams, JL, Malik, KU. Inhibitory modulation by cAMP of isoproterenol-induced prostacyclin synthesis in rabbit heart. Am J Physiol, 257 (4 Pt 2), R771-80, 1989.
  74. Schwartz, DD, Malik, KU. Renal periarterial nerve stimulation-induced vasoconstriction at low frequencies is primarily due to release of a purinergic transmitter in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 250 (3), 764-71, 1989.
  75. Weis, MT, Malik, KU. The influence of mono- and divalent cations on the cardiac metabolism of arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins, 37 (6), 707-23, 1989.
  76. Weis, MT, Malik, KU. Uptake and hormonally induced hydrolysis of [3H]phosphatidyl choline in the isolated rabbit heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 248 (2), 614-20, 1989.
  77. Jaiswal, N, Lambrecht, G, Mutschler, E, Malik, KU. Effect of M2 muscarinic receptor antagonist 4-DAMP, on prostaglandin synthesis and mechanical function in the isolated rabbit heart. Gen Pharmacol, 20 (4), 497-502, 1989.
  78. Malik, KU, Weis, MT, Jaiswal, N. Mechanism of action of adrenergic and cholinergic stimuli on cardiac prostaglandin synthesis. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res, 19, 327-30, 1989.
  79. Jaiswal, N, Lambrecht, G, Mutschler, E, Malik, KU. Contribution of M2 alpha and M2 beta muscarinic receptors to the action of cholinergic stimuli on prostaglandin synthesis and mechanical function in the isolated rabbit heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 247 (1), 104-13, 1988.
  80. el Din, MM, Malik, KU. Neuropeptide Y stimulates renal prostaglandin synthesis in the isolated rat kidney: contribution of Ca++ and calmodulin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 246 (2), 479-84, 1988.
  81. el-Din, MM, Malik, KU. Differential effect of omega-conotoxin on release of the adrenergic transmitter and the vasoconstrictor response to noradrenaline in the rat isolated kidney. Br J Pharmacol, 94 (2), 355-62, 1988.
  82. el-Din, MM, Malik, KU. Mechanism of norepinephrine release elicited by Na+-K+ adenosine triphosphatase inhibition in the isolated rat kidney: involvement of voltage-dependent Ca++ channels. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 245 (2), 436-43, 1988.
  83. Malik, KU. Interaction of arachidonic acid metabolites and adrenergic nervous system. Am J Med Sci, 295 (4), 280-6, 1988.
  84. Jaiswal, N, Malik, KU. Prostaglandin synthesis elicited by cholinergic stimuli is mediated by activation of M2 muscarinic receptors in rabbit heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 245 (1), 59-66, 1988.
  85. Iijima, F, Malik, KU. Contribution of vasopressin in dexamethasone-induced hypertension in rats. Hypertension, 11 (2 Pt 2), I42-6, 1988.
  86. el-Din, MM, Malik, KU. Mechanism of norepinephrine release elicited by renal nerve stimulation, veratridine and potassium chloride in the isolated rat kidney. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 243 (1), 76-85, 1987.