Endowed Professor of Women's Health
Department of Preventive Medicine

MEMPHIS TN 381630000
Tel: (901) 448-5900


  • M.P.H., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, Public Health
  • M.D., University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, Medicine
  • B.S., Lambuth College, Jackson, TN, Biology

Research interest/specialty

Women''s Health


Smoking Cessation

Preventive Medicine


  1. Kositsawat, J, Kuchel, GA, Tooze, JA, Houston, DK, Cauley, JA, Kritchevsky, SB, Strotmeyer, ES, Kanaya, AM, Harris, TB, Johnson, KC, Barry, LC, ,. Vitamin d insufficiency and abnormal hemoglobin a1c in black and white older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 70 (4), 525-31, 2015.
  2. Vyas, A, Rubenstein, L, Robinson, J, Seguin, RA, Vitolins, MZ, Kazlauskaite, R, Shikany, JM, Johnson, KC, Snetselaar, L, Wallace, R. Diet Drink Consumption and the Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Report from the Women's Health Initiative. J Gen Intern Med, 30 (4), 462-8, 2015.
  3. Pownall, HJ, Bray, GA, Wagenknecht, LE, Walkup, MP, Heshka, S, Hubbard, VS, Hill, J, Kahn, SE, Nathan, DM, Schwartz, AV, Johnson, KC, ,. Changes in body composition over 8 years in a randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention: the look AHEAD study. Obesity (Silver Spring), 23 (3), 565-72, 2015.
  4. Tabung, FK, Steck, SE, Ma, Y, Liese, AD, Zhang, J, Caan, B, Hou, L, Johnson, KC, Mossavar-Rahmani, Y, Shivappa, N, Wactawski-Wende, J, Ockene, JK, Hebert, JR. The association between dietary inflammatory index and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative. Cancer Causes Control, 26 (3), 399-408, 2015.
  5. Sullivan, SD, Lehman, A, Thomas, F, Johnson, KC, Jackson, R, Wactawski-Wende, J, Ko, M, Chen, Z, Curb, JD, Howard, BV. Effects of self-reported age at nonsurgical menopause on time to first fracture and bone mineral density in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Menopause, 2015.
  6. Salmoirago-Blotcher, E, Hovey, KM, Andrews, CA, Robinson, JG, Johnson, KC, Wassertheil-Smoller, S, Crawford, S, Qi, L, Martin, LW, Ockene, J, Manson, JE. Statin use and risk of haemorrhagic stroke in a community-based cohort of postmenopausal women: an observational study from the Women's Health Initiative. BMJ Open, 5 (2), e007075, 2015.
  7. Barnard, JM, Fisher, LM, Johnson, KC, Eisenberg, LS, Wang, NY, Quittner, AL, Carson, CM, Niparko, JK, ,. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of U.S. Children Unable to Achieve Open-Set Speech Recognition 5 Years After Cochlear Implantation. Otol Neurotol, 2015.
  8. Espeland, MA, Probstfield, J, Hire, D, Redmon, JB, Evans, GW, Coday, M, Lewis, CE, Johnson, KC, Wilmoth, S, Bahnson, J, Dulin, MF, Green, JB, Knowler, WC, Kitabchi, A, Murillo, AL, Osei, K, Rehman, SU, Cushman, WC, , , ,. Systolic Blood Pressure Control Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Three Interventions. Am J Hypertens, 2015.
  9. Houston, DK, Leng, X, Bray, GA, Hergenroeder, AL, Hill, JO, Jakicic, JM, Johnson, KC, Neiberg, RH, Marsh, AP, Rejeski, WJ, Kritchevsky, SB, ,. A long-term intensive lifestyle intervention and physical function: the look AHEAD Movement and Memory Study. Obesity (Silver Spring), 23 (1), 77-84, 2015.
  10. Krukowski, RA, Hare, ME, Talcott, GW, Johnson, KC, Richey, PA, Kocak, M, Balderas, J, Colvin, L, Keller, PL, Waters, TM, Klesges, RC. Dissemination of the Look AHEAD intensive lifestyle intervention in the United States Air Force: study rationale, design and methods. Contemp Clin Trials, 40, 232-9, 2015.
  11. Raynor, HA, Anderson, AM, Miller, GD, Reeves, R, Delahanty, LM, Vitolins, MZ, Harper, P, Mobley, C, Konersman, K, Mayer-Davis, E, ,. Partial Meal Replacement Plan and Quality of the Diet at 1 Year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial. J Acad Nutr Diet, 2015.
  12. Stika, CJ, Eisenberg, LS, Johnson, KC, Henning, SC, Colson, BG, Ganguly, DH, DesJardin, JL. Developmental outcomes of early-identified children who are hard of hearing at 12 to 18 months of age. Early Hum Dev, 91 (1), 47-55, 2015.
  13. Crandall, CJ, Yildiz, VO, Wactawski-Wende, J, Johnson, KC, Chen, Z, Going, SB, Wright, NC, Cauley, JA. Postmenopausal weight change and incidence of fracture: post hoc findings from Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and Clinical Trials. BMJ, 350, h25, 2015.
  14. Franceschini, N, Hu, Y, Reiner, AP, Buyske, S, Nalls, M, Yanek, LR, Li, Y, Hindorff, LA, Cole, SA, Howard, BV, Stafford, JM, Carty, CL, Sethupathy, P, Martin, LW, Lin, DY, Johnson, KC, Becker, LC, North, KE, Dehghan, A, Bis, JC, Liu, Y, Greenland, P, Manson, JE, Maeda, N, Garcia, M, Harris, TB, Becker, DM, O'Donnell, C, Heiss, G, Kooperberg, C, Boerwinkle, E. Prospective associations of coronary heart disease loci in African Americans using the MetaboChip: the PAGE study. PLoS One, 9 (12), e113203, 2014.
  15. Espeland, MA, Beavers, KM, Gibbs, BB, Johnson, KC, Hughes, TM, Baker, LD, Jakicic, J, Korytkowski, M, Miller, M, Bray, GA. Ankle-brachial index and inter-artery blood pressure differences as predictors of cognitive function in overweight and obese older adults with diabetes: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes movement and memory study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 2014.
  16. Thomson, CA, Van Horn, L, Caan, BJ, Aragaki, AK, Chlebowski, RT, Manson, JE, Rohan, TE, Tinker, LF, Kuller, LH, Hou, L, Lane, DS, Johnson, KC, Vitolins, MZ, Prentice, RL. Cancer incidence and mortality during the intervention and postintervention periods of the Women's Health Initiative dietary modification trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 23 (12), 2924-35, 2014.
  17. Gourlay, ML, Overman, RA, Fine, JP, Ensrud, KE, Crandall, CJ, Gass, ML, Robbins, J, Johnson, KC, LeBlanc, ES, Womack, CR, Schousboe, JT, LaCroix, AZ, ,. Baseline age and time to major fracture in younger postmenopausal women. Menopause, 2014.
  18. Lytle, LA, Svetkey, LP, Patrick, K, Belle, SH, Fernandez, ID, Jakicic, JM, Johnson, KC, Olson, CM, Tate, DF, Wing, R, Loria, CM. The EARLY trials: a consortium of studies targeting weight control in young adults. Transl Behav Med, 4 (3), 304-13, 2014.
  19. Johnson, KC, Margolis, KL, Espeland, MA, Colenda, CC, Fillit, H, Manson, JE, Masaki, KH, Mouton, CP, Prineas, R, Robinson, JG, Wassertheil-Smoller, S, ,. A Prospective Study of the Effect of Hypertension and Baseline Blood Pressure on Cognitive Decline and Dementia in Postmenopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2008.
  20. Iannaccone, A, Mura, M, Gallaher, KT, Johnson, EJ, Todd, WA, Kenyon, E, Harris, TL, Harris, T, Satterfield, S, Johnson, KC, Kritchevsky, SB. Macular pigment optical density in the elderly: findings in a large biracial Midsouth population sample. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 48 (4), 1458-65, 2007.
  21. Gallaher, KT, Mura, M, Todd, WA, Harris, TL, Kenyon, E, Harris, T, Johnson, KC, Satterfield, S, Kritchevsky, SB, Iannaccone, A, ,. Estimation of macular pigment optical density in the elderly: test-retest variability and effect of optical blur in pseudophakic subjects. Vision Res, 47 (9), 1253-9, 2007.
  22. Kooperberg C, Cushman M, Hsia J, Robinson JG, Aragaki A, Lynch JK, Baird AE, Johnson KC, Kuller L, Beresford SAA, Rodriguez B. Can biomarkers identify women at increased stroke risk: the Women’s Health Initiative Hormone Trials. PLoS Clin Trials, 2 (6), 28e, 2007.
  23. Wing RR, Jakicic J, Neiberg R, Lang W, Blair SN, Cooper L, Hill JO, Johnson KC, Lewis B, and the Look AHEAD Research Group. Fitness, Fatness and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes: Look AHEAD Study. MSSE, in press, 2007.
  24. Henderson VW, Espeland MA, Hogan PE, Rapp SR, Stefanick ML, Wactawski-Wende J, Johnson KC, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Freeman R, Curb D. Prior use of hormone therapy and incident Alzheimer?s disease in the Women?s Health Initiative Memory Study.. Neurology, 68 ([suppl. 1]), 2007.
  25. Abel EL, Hendrix SO, McNeeley SG, Johnson KC, Rosenberg CA, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Vitolins M, Kruger M. Daily Coffee Consumption and Prevalence of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Caucasian Women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 16 (5), 446-452, 2007.
  26. Look AHEAD Research Group (writing group member Johnson KC). Reduction in Weight and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: One-Year Results of the Look AHEAD Trial. Diabetes Care., 30 (6), 1374-1383, 2007.
  27. Huang A, Ettinger B, Vittinghoff E, Ensrud K, Johnson KC, Cummings S. Endogenous estrogen levels and the effects of Ultra-Low-Dose Transdermal Estradiol therapy on bone turnover and bone density in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res, 22 (11), 1791-1797, 2007.
  28. Hsia J, Heiss G, Ren H, Allison M, Dolan NC, Greenland P, Heckbert SR, Johnson KC, Manson JE, Sidney S, Trevisan M, for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Calcium/ Vitamin D supplementation and the risk of cardiovascular events.. Circulation, 115, 846-854, 2007.
  29. Koster, A, Bosma, H, Penninx, BW, Newman, AB, Harris, TB, van Eijk, JT, Kempen, GI, Simonsick, EM, Johnson, KC, Rooks, RN, Ayonayon, HN, Rubin, SM, Kritchevsky, SB, ,. Association of inflammatory markers with socioeconomic status. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 61 (3), 284-90, 2006.
  30. The Women’s Health Initiative Investigators (writing group member Johnson KC). The Women’s Health Initiative Trial of low-fat eating pattern and breast cancer. JAMA, 295, 629-642, 2006.
  31. The Women’s Health Initiative Investigators (writing group member Johnson KC). The Women’s Health Initiative Trial of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on the risk for fractures. N Engl J Med, 354, 669-683, 2006.
  32. The Women’s Health Initiative Investigators (writing group member Johnson KC). Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women: The Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trial. N Engl J Med, 354, 684-696, 2006.
  33. Beresford SA, Johnson KC, Ritenbaugh C, Lasser N, Snetselaar LG, Black HR, et.al. The Women’s Health Initiative Trial of low-fat eating pattern and colorectal cancer. JAMA, 295, 643-656, 2006.
  34. Yaffe K, Vittinghoff E, Ensrud KE, Johnson KC, Diem S, Hanes V, Grady D. Effects of ultra low-dose transdermal estradiol on cognitive function: results of a randomized clinical trial. Arch Neurol, 63, 945-950, 2006.
  35. Klesges RC, Johnson KC, Somes G. Varenicline for smoking cessation: definite promise but no panacea. JAMA, 296, 94-95, 2006.
  36. The Women’s Health Initiative Investigators (writing group member Johnson KC). The Women’s Health Initiative Trial of low-fat eating pattern and cardiovascular disease. JAMA, 295, 655-666, 2006.
  37. Farhat G, Strotmeyer, Newman AB, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Bauer D, Harris T, Johnson KC, Taaffe D, Tylavsky F, Cauley JA. Volumetric and areal bone mineral density measures are associated with cardiovascular disease in older men and women: The Health Aging and Body Composition Study (Health ABC)., 79, 102-111, 2006.
  38. Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Hendrix S, Johnson KC, Wagenknecht LE, Haan MN, Weidner G, LaCroix, AX, Cook NR. Cross-sectional correlates of fasting hyperinsulinemia post-menopausal women of different ethnic origin. Diabet Med, 23, 77-85, 2006.
  39. Hsia J, Langer RD, Manson JE, Kuller L, Johnson KC, Hendrix SL, Pettinger M, Heckbert SR, Greep N, Crawford S, Eaton CB, Kostis JB, Caralis P, Prentice R for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Conjugated equine estrogen and coronary heart disease: the Women’s Health Initiative. Arch Intern Med, 166, 357-365, 2006.
  40. Maraldi C, Volpato S, Kritchevsky SB, Cesari M, Andresen E, Leeuwenburgh C, Harris TB, Newman AB, Kanaya A, Johnson KC, Rodondi N, Pahor M. Alcohol Consumption, Mortality and Cardiac Events: Impact of Inflammation. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Arch Intern Med, 166, 1490-1497, 2006.
  41. Bonds D, Larson JC, Schwartz AV, Strotmeyer ES, Robbins J, Rodriguez BL, Johnson KC, Margolis KL. Increased Risk of Fracture among Women with Type 2 Diabetes: the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 91 (9), 3404-3410, 2006.
  42. Hendrix S, Smoller S, Johnson KC, Howard BV, Kooperberg C, Rossouw JE, Trevisan M, Aragaki A, Baird AE, Bray PF, Buring JE, Criqui MH, Herrington D, Lynch JK, Mouton C, Rapp SR, Torner J for the WHI Investigators. Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogen on Stroke in the Women's Health Initiative. Circulation, 113, 2425-2434, 2006.
  43. Cooper TV, Klesges RC, Debon MW, Zbikowski SM, Johnson KC, Clemens LH. A placebo controlled randomized trial of the effects of phenylpropanolamine and nicotine gum on cessation rates and postcessation weight gain in women. Addictive Behaviors, 30, 61-75, 2005.
  44. McTiernan A, Martin C, Peck J, Agagaki A, Chlebowski R, Pisano E, Wang CY, Brunner R, Johnson KC, Manson JE, Lewis CE, Kotchen JM, Hulka B for the Women’s Health Initiative Mammogram Density Study Investigators. Estrogen plus progestin influence on mammogram density in healthy postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Intiative Randomized Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst., 97, 1366-1376, 2005.
  45. Johnson, KC, Klesges, LM, Somes, GW, Coday, MC, DeBon, M. Access of over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy products to minors. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 158 (3), 212-6, 2004.
  46. The Women’s Health Initiative Steering Committee (writing group member Johnson, KC). Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA, 291, 1701-1712, 2004.
  47. 27 Women’s Health Initiative Study Group (Investigator – Johnson, KC). Dietary adherence in the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. J Am Diet Assoc, 104, 654-658, 2004.
  48. Klesges, LM, Johnson, KC, Somes, G, Zbikowski, S, Robinson, L. Use of nicotine replacement therapy in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157 (6), 517-22, 2003.
  49. The Look AHEAD Research Group (writing group member Johnson, KC). Look AHEAD: Action for Health in Diabetes: Design and methods for a clinical trial of weight loss for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Controlled Clinical Trials, 24, 610-628, 2003.
  50. Curb D, McTiernan A, Heckbert SR, Koopersberg C, Stanford J, Nevitt M, Johnson KC, Proux-Burns L, Pastore L, Criqui M, Daugherty S. Outcomes ascertainment and adjudication. Ann Epidemiol, 13 (9s), 122-128, 2003.
  51. Rapp SR, Espeland MA, Shumaker SA, Henderson VW, Bruner RL, Manson JE, Gass ML, Stefanick ML, Lane DL, Hays J, Johnson KC, coker LH, Dailey M, Bowen D for the WHIMS Investigators. Effect of estrogen plus progestin on global cognitive function in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 289, 2663-2672, 2003.
  52. Manson JE, Hsia J, Johnson KC, Rossouw JE, Assaf AR, Lasser NL, Trevisan M, Black HR, Heckbert SR, Detrano R, Strickland OL, Wong ND, Crouse JR, Stein E, Cushman M.. Estrogen plus progestin and risk of coronary heart disease: final results from the Women’s Health Initiative. N Engl J Med, 349, 523-534, 2003.
  53. Rogers LQ, Bailey JE, Gutin B, Johnson KC, Levine MA, Milan F Seeling CB, Sherman SE. Teaching physicians in training to provide exercise counseling:a needs assessment. Acad. Med, 77, 841-844, 2002.
  54. Pahor M, Franse LV, Deitcher SR, Cushman WC, Johnson KC, Shorr RI, Kottke-Marchant K, Tracy RP, Somes GW, Applegate WB. Fosinopril versus amlodipine comparative treatments study: a randomized trial to assess effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Circulation, 105, 457-461, 2002.
  55. Kostis JB, Wilson AC, Hooper WC, Harrison KW, Philipp CS, Appel LJ, Espeland M, Folmar S, Johnson KC, for the TONE Cooperative Research Group. Associations with ACE (DD) genotypes with blood pressure sensitivity to weight loss. American Heart Journal, October, 144 (4), 625-629, 2002.
  56. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperburg C, Stefanick ML, Jackson RD, Beresford SA, Howard BV, Johnson KC, Kotchen JM, Ockene J; Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 288, 321-333, 2002.
  57. Writing group for the Women’s Health Initiative (writing group Johnson KC). Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 288, 321-333, 2002.
  58. Coday M, Klesges LM, Garrison RJ, Johnson KC, O’Toole M, Morris GS. Health opportunities with physical exercise (HOPE): social contextual interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in urban settings. Health Education Research:Theory and Practice, 17, 101-111, 2002.
  59. Johnson KC. Hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease. The Female Patient. Oct., 2001.
  60. Hall WD, Pettigner M, Oberman A, Watts NB, Johnson KC, Paskett Ed, Limacher MC, Hayes J. Risk factors for kidney stones in older women in the southern United Sates. Am J Med Sci, 322 (1), 1-7, 2001.
  61. Klesges LM, Johnson KC, Ward KD, Barnard M.. Smoking cessation in pregnant women. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in North America, 28, 269-282, 2001.
  62. Manson JE, Lewis CE, Kotchen JM, Allen C, Johnson KC, Stefanick M, Foreyt J, Klesges RC, Tinker L, Noonan L, Perri M, Hall D. Ethnic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle correlates of obesity in U.S. women: the Women’s Health Initiative. Clinical Journal of Women’s Health, 1, 225-234, 2001.
  63. The Writing Group for the Activity Counseling Trial Research Group (Johnson KC). Effects of physical activity counseling in primary care. JAMA, 286, 677-687, 2001.
  64. O'Toole, ML, Johnson, KC, Satterfield, S, Bush, AJ, Koo, WW, Klesges, RC, Applegate, WB. Do sweat calcium losses affect bone mass during firefighter training. J Occup Environ Med, 42 (11), 1054-9, 2000.
  65. Shorr, RI, Franse, LV, Resnick, HE, Di Bari, M, Johnson, KC, Pahor, M. Glycemic control of older adults with type 2 diabetes: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. J Am Geriatr Soc, 48 (3), 264-7, 2000.
  66. Johnson KC, Clarke C, Shorr RI, Mauck C, Summitt RL, Applegate WB. Will women accept randomization in a clinical trial of hormonal contraceptives?. Clinical Journal of Women’s Health., 1, 16-22, 2000.
  67. Johnson, KC, Graney, MJ, Applegate, WB, Kitabchi, AE, Runyan, JW, Rutan, GH. Does syndrome X exist in hypertensive elderly persons with impaired glycemic control. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 54 (11), M571-6, 1999.
  68. Bullen, DB, O'Toole, ML, Johnson, KC. Calcium losses resulting from an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. Int J Sport Nutr, 9 (3), 275-84, 1999.
  69. Johnson KC, Graney MJ, Applegate WB, Kitabchi AE, Runyan JW, Rutan GH. Does syndrome -X exist in hypertensive elderly persons with impaired glycemic control?. J Geron Med Sciences., 54A, 571-576, 1999.
  70. Tylavsky, FA, Johnson, KC, Wan, JY, Harshfield, G. Plasma renin activity is associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women. Osteoporos Int, 8 (2), 136-40, 1998.
  71. Shorr, RI, Johnson, KC, Wan, JY, Sutton-Tyrrell, K, Pahor, M, Bailey, JE, Applegate, WB. The prognostic significance of asymptomatic carotid bruits in the elderly. J Gen Intern Med, 13 (2), 86-90, 1998.
  72. HERS Research Group (Johnson KC). Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. JAMA, 280, 605-613, 1998.
  73. Ginsberg, JP, Klesges, RC, Johnson, KC, Eck, LH, Meyers, AW, Winders, SA. The relationship between a history of depression and adherence to a multicomponent smoking-cessation program. Addict Behav, 22 (6), 783-7, 1998.
  74. Richey, PA, Jones, CL, Harshfield, GA, Somes, GW, Johnson, KC, Bailey, JE, Soberman, JE. The AM5600 ambulatory blood pressure recording system. Blood Press Monit, 2 (4), 193-195, 1997.
  75. Johnson, KC, Graney, MJ, Applegate, WB, Kitabchi, AE, Runyan, JW, Shorr, RI. Prevalence of undiagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in a cohort of older persons with hypertension. J Am Geriatr Soc, 45 (6), 695-700, 1997.
  76. Johnson, KC. Smoking cessation and the doctor's office. J Tenn Med Assoc, 88 (4), 145-6, 1995.
  77. Rogers, LQ, Johnson, KC, Arheart, KL. Current physician screening and treatment of hypercholesterolemic patients. Am J Med Sci, 306 (2), 124-8, 1993.
  78. Smith, WR, Johnson, KC, Jackson, W. Developing a computerized ambulatory medical record to document health promotion and disease prevention activities during the clinic encounter. J Ambul Care Manage, 15 (4), 9-17, 1992.